but is much broader than just "climate change" (e.g. NYC and hurricanes) Further the ability of mitigation to limit impacts has most of its effects in the latter decades of the century and beyond Adaptation and mitigation are simply not tradeoffs Adaptation overwhelmed Not according to IPCC [the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] [Nicholas] Stern etc That is hyperbole 6 Energy policy stuff is all pretty boilerplate First bullet point after the importance of mitigation is to expand shale gas—tells you something about the realpolitik 7 New North American climate agreement Where did that come from Why Because other international treaties have performed so well 😉 From Raymond Pierrehumbert of the University of Chicago in Illinois: I generally agree with Ken Caldeira’s reactions with some caveat that maybe PCAST was judging that a carbon price was so unlikely to pass that it would be a distraction from things Obama could actually get done I believe that PCAST should have emphasized the importance of implementing a price on carbon It is not PCAST’s job to do Obama’s political strategizing for him A price on carbon need not take the form of cap and trade or a carbon tax It might be possible for example to impose an extraction fee ("severance payment") for coal and oil taken from federal lands It might be possible to impose an export fee on exported coal It might be possible to impose some kind of fee on imported tar sands oil (though that would have to be done in such a way as to not trigger problems with GATT [General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade]) It’s up to the president to figure out how to make material progress with the Congress he has but a clear statement of the magnitude of the task at hand and its importance should have come out of PCAST I’m pretty much in line with what Ken Caldeira said on this Regarding Keystone I myself think it is clear that Obama should say no to Keystone because it is something in his power to do which would have some effect on retarding development of the tar sands (despite what the flawed State Department EIS [Environmental Impact Statement] said) and because we really wouldn’t get any significant benefit from saying yes; no real oil security few permanent jobs and most of the money goes to Canada and to refiners in free-trade zones Turning down Keystone makes the statement that it is time to stop investing in technologies that lock us into continued fossil fuel use and to make a bigger play on efficiency and carbon-neutral energy (including nuclear) I’m not sure though that making a recommendation on Keystone is really in the purview of PCAST since the issues are more economic and political than strictly scientific Ken is also right that overemphasis on natural gas is a bad thing As his work with [Nathan] Myhrvold shows and as Michael Levi’s paper in Climatic Change also shows natural gas may have contributed to the current pause in US carbon emissions growth but if it is a bridge it is a short bridge of limited utility Especially if cheap natural gas kills off renewables and next-generation nuclear As US domestic demand for coal decreases the pressure to expand US coal exports increases What short-term benefit we do get from the switch to natural gas would be completely lost if it results in expanded coal exports PCAST should have recommended that the president identify policies that could inhibit coal exports since if there is one thing that’s abundantly clear it is that most of the remaining coal needs to stay in the ground From Alan Robock of Rutgers University in New Brunswick New Jersey: I agree with Ken and Obama needs to reject the Keystone pipeline to show that he means business We need a renewable infrastructure not more fossil fuel infrastructure From David Doniger of the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) in Washington DC: The most key things I saw/heard were the "overarching importance" of carbon emission reduction (mitigation) and the strong recommendation of actions under the Clean Air Act especially to curb CO2 emissions from new and existing power plants and methane emissions from the natural gas infrastructure My comment: These are the two largest steps to meet the president’s target of 17% reduction in carbon pollution below 2005 levels by 2020 In fact the target cannot be met without taking these steps (I would also mention the opportunity to phase-down HFCs [hydrofluorocarbons] and to replace them with low-heat-trapping refrigerants blowing agents etc, The study set out to understand how one’s beliefs about alcohol and sex affect condom use during sexual encounters involving alcohol.000 retail outlets into so-called smart stores. we also perform Khusro’s kalams and classical bandishes. Murshidabadi Project. who had done a number of similar reviews. 11:27 a.

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